What Steps Should Be Taken to Combat Superbugs in the Developing World?

By Christopher Metzger

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Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), photo courtesy of Flickr user NIAID under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic License.

What is antimicrobial resistance?

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) refers to the ability of microbes to grow in the presence of substances specifically designed to kill them, specifically antibiotics. Superbug is a non-scientific term used by the media to refer to a pathogenic bacterium that has developed an immunity to antibiotics. The annual economic costs of AMR and superbugs—measured in lost productivity—could be as large as that of the 2008 global financial crisis. Without a global containment effort, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will be out of reach. In particular, goals 1 and 3—ending poverty, and achieving good health and well-being—will be unreachable by 2030. If containment efforts fail by 2050, more people will be dying from resistant bacteria than from cancer, as shown in Figure 1. The deaths and medical costs that would result from widespread drug-resistant bacteria could cost developing countries five percent of their gross domestic product (GDP) by 2050, yet the threat of superbugs is only just beginning to receive the international media attention that it deserves.

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Where We’re Going, We Don’t Need Roads: Drones in International Development

By Aaron Milner

Introduction

Poor infrastructure and weak logistics limit development effectiveness.  Governments invested over $130 billion in official development assistance (ODA) into the world’s poorest countries in 2015, but billions of people still lack access to food, water, healthcare, internet, and electricity.  Traditional development often cannot deliver immediate results to communities, tax payers, and investors.  Developing countries plagued by financial and political instability wait in limbo for long-term development project completion to provide basic public goods.  New technology, however, expedites development delivery.  Private companies are experimenting with technological alternatives to traditional infrastructure—such as drones, also known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)—to reach more people for less money.  Beyond expense, drones are a flexible development tool.  The same network that patrols South Africa for poachers can track drought patterns.  Whereas an expensive road is permanent to one location, drones can cover vast geographies in a short time to achieve diverse goals.

This post explores how cost-effective and creative technology—specifically drones—could solve large-scale issues and jump start progress in developing countries.  A survey of the various companies using drones leads into an analysis that explores the question:  Do developing countries need to undertake expansive infrastructure projects to reach their initial goals?

Zipline

Photo courtesy of Zipline

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